针对当前水环境、水生态问题和治水方法的误区，提出通过建立水生态基础设施来综合解决防洪、排涝、干旱、水污染治理、地下水下降、水生柏息地消失、棕地生态修复、城市滨水区利用等一系列问题，结合多尺度的生态基础设施规划和工程设计实践案例，详细阐述了生态基础设施构建的关键规划技术和建设技术要点，阐明建立水生态基础设施的必要性、可行性和实际效果、水生态基础设施的规划和建设.能为城市及居民提供可持续的全面的生态系统服务，在很大程度上可避免灰色基础设施的高投入、高维护及对水生态系统的破坏等弊端。呼吁建设水生态文明在思想上需要革命，方法上需要创新，体制上需要打破边界。Abstract: It is found that misunderstanding is existedin the practice for management of water environment and ecosystem. Therefore it is suggested to build water and eco-friendly infrastructures for dealing with problems of flood and waterlogging, drought, water pollution, groundwater depression, lost of aquatic habitats, ecological recovery of brownfield and coastal development in cities. Key technologies for construction of water and eco-friendly infrastructures are introduced in detail on the basis of case studies onplanning and design of eco-structures of varied scales,which are used for demonstrating necessity, feasibility and practical results of these strcutures. Eco-friendly structures have advantages of low requirement for input,low operation andl maintenance cost and less damage to ecosystem comparing to "grey infrastructures",and can provide comprehensive services in a sustainable way. However innovation is needed in terms of implementation of this approach, applicaticn of methodology and creation of institutional system.