文章来源：俞孔坚. 论景观评论.[J].景观设计学, 2017,5(6), 4-7.
On Landscape Criticism
Landscape criticism means to consider the meaning and place of landscape as a form of cultural production, which is an education for landscape professionals just as the education from parents to children. Helpful landscape criticism is like parents’ advice with the best of intentions, even though it is sometimes difficult to hear. Criticism that lacks a cultural critique, on the other hand, might become irresponsible attack or harmful flattery. Landscape architecture lacking criticism is easily misled.
Landscape criticism is in many ways more challenging than creating a landscape itself. In 1979, Donald W. Meinig, an American historical geographer, stated that “any landscape is composed not only of what lies before our eyes but what lies within our heads.” As suggested by Meinig, there are “ten versions of the same scene” — ten ways to read the same scene — Nature, Habitat, Artifact, System, Problem, Wealth, Ideology, History, Place, and Aesthetic. Meinig implied that perceptions and comments on the landscape can hardly ever be objective because they are a reflection of the viewers’ outlook on life, values, and aesthetic standards, incorporating their moods at that time. Thus, landscape criticism, derived from Meinig’s concept, can unfold in ten or more ways, including the natural and ecological, social and economic, historical and cultural, and aesthetic aspects.
In Chinese academic landscape architecture, meaningful criticism hardly exists. One reason is the short history of modern landscape architecture and the emerging professionalization of landscape architecture. We need more landscape critics and scholars to continue to establish landscape criticism as a discipline, since academic and inclusive criticism can help grow and develop China’s landscape profession in ways that continue to challenge the field’s role and responsibility without excessive flattery or diatribe. We call for landscape criticism, as if calling for a sound education system! We call upon outstanding landscape critics, as if calling upon soul engineers responsible for the future of humanity!
 Meinig, D. W. (1979). The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of the Same Scene. In D. W. Meinig (Ed.), The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays. New York: Oxford University Press.