文章来源：俞孔坚. 栖息地与生物多样性[J]. 景观设计学, 2016, 4(03):6-11.
Habitat and Biodiversity
When I first read Life on Earth by Edword Osborne Wilson over 20 years ago, I was enlivened by his words: “In the expanding enterprise, landscape design will play a decisive role. Where environments have been mostly humanized, biological diversity can still be sustained at high levels by the ingenious placement of woodlots, hedgerows, watersheds, reservoirs and artificial ponds and lakes. Master plans will meld not just economic efficiency and beauty but also the preservation of species and races.” Wilson’s statement has continued to inspire me and bring confidence to my commitment to healing the earth through landscape architecture. His words also increased my awareness of the potential of landscape architecture, helping to guide my professional practice.
There are three consensuses about biodiversity: genetic diversity, species diversity, and habitat diversity.
Biodiversity can refer, at the scale of the gene, to the individual differences within a single species. For example, there is no same two poplars on earth, despite being the most common tree. In many ways, humans are the best example of the diversity at the genetic level. There are nearly six billion people on the earth, with no two the same. It is the genetic diversity that gives each species the potential to thrive and adapt to changing environments. Cloning, despite replicating genes, does not contribute to biodiversity. Rather, it dramatically cuts off biodiversity, causing species to lose their ability to adapt to the environment. I am not, however, fearful of modern technology, yet I cannot help hating such technology that is against natural law!
Biodiversity at species level is most understandable. Simply, there are millions of species living on earth. However, this awareness has not curtailed our long history of destroying biodiversity. Often, a species’ right to life depends on their usefulness to humans, our likes or dislikes. The harvesting of ivory, rhino horn, shark fin, or bear paw can, and often does, result in the death of those animals. Weapon of mass destruction, such as pesticides, antibiotics, or flamethrowers are widely used only as human pest control. I have seen creatures innocently killed, such as oncomelania in water (the host of aquatic blood-sucking insects), the grasshopper in fields, the hamster in the earth and the sparrow in the sky. My childhood memories of a fertile homeland where all species live in free competition is now nothing but dead silence. At the same time, humans go to great efforts to save the species they like. “Flagship species,” most of which are charismatic species, such as the Giant Panda, are proposed by ecologists with a good intention of arousing public’s awareness of species and habitat conservation and given priority within conservation measures. Even these efforts are now being challenged as people go to great lengths to protect panda habitats and breeding grounds while ignoring greater species diversity within the same valley, the Yangtze River!
Habitat is where creatures reproduce, live, and grow, the diversity of these landscapes is the foundation of species and gene biodiversity. Habitat is the sum of our environments, where subtle changes in subtle factors impact living things. Human activity has resulted in huge changes in habitat, on par with global change that occurred in the era of the dinosaurs! Worldwide climate change, regional-scale urban expansion, the construction of brutal gray infrastructure, increasingly mechanized agricultural production, the large-scale clearing of primeval forests, and the mono-cultivation of energy crops such as oil palm are all examples of activities actively destroying habitat at an alarming rate!
With knowledge of what causes biodiversity reduction, we can go back to Wilson’s words, that landscape design will play a decisive role in biodiversity conservation. With this in mind, landscape architecture must incorporate the following principles and strategies:
First, we must design with nature. Beginning with planning, this will require establishing ecological security patterns at both the regional and state level. Working between people and land, landscape architects must use less land. This will require first protecting, and then resorting, biodiversity through identification and conservation of critical habitats.
Second, landscape architects must, where possible, use local and native species during ecological restorations, particularly large-scale urban and rural afforestation, avoiding exotic species invasion and intensive use of cultivated species.
Finally, landscape architects must assume the task of ecological design as it applies to hydraulic engineering, transportation infrastructure, agriculture and forestry, and urban development. While none of these activities are designed to kill biodiversity, without proper planning and design they can be incredibility environmental destructive. Various methods, such as the ponds system of historic water conservancy projects, organic farming systems, sustainable management of forestry, and adaptive settlement with hilly land and flood have shown that by combining science and art, landscape architecture can produce life, rather than take life, helping achieve a shared world.